تأثیر سبک‌های یادگیری و به کارگیری نقشه‌های معنایی بر توانایی تفکر انتقادی دانش آموزان دوره متوسطه و بهبود یادگیری واژگان زبان انگلیسی آن‌ها

نویسندگان

1 مشاور مرکز مشاوره خانواده اداره ناحیه 1 آموزش و پرورش استان البرز

2 دکترای روانشناسی تربیتی، استاد یار پایه 14، عضو هیات علمی دانشکده روانشناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج- ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به­منظور بررسی تأثیرسبک‌های یادگیری و به­کارگیری نقشه‌­های معنایی بر میزان پیشرفت توانایی تفکر انتقادی دانش آموزان دوره متوسطه و بهبود یادگیری واژگان زبان انگلیسی آنان انجام شد. به‌منظور تحقق این هدف، 123دانش آموز دختر پایه دوم رشته ریاضی و فیزیک از دبیرستان فرزانگان ناحیه 1 آموزش وپرورش کرج به­طورتصادفی خوشه­ای انتخاب شدند و به دو گروه همگن آزمایش و گواه تقسیم شدند. سپس، دانش آموزان به پرسشنامه­های سبک­های یادگیری (اُبرین[1]، 1989) و تفکر انتقادی (هانی[2]، 2004) در دو بخش پیش­آزمون و پس آزمون پاسخ دادند. همچنین، دانش آموزان به سؤالات آزمون­های واژگان و توانایی عمومی زبان انگلیسی در پیش­آزمون و پس آزمون پاسخ دادند و نمرات آن­ها محاسبه شد. طی 12 جلسه، واژگان کتاب درسی آن­ها با به­کارگیری نقشه­های معنایی در گروه آزمایش به دانش­آموزان آموزش داده شد. سپس، داده­های به دست آمده مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. بر اساس نتایج تحلیل­های آماری، مشخص شد که سبک­های یادگیری از نظر آماری تأثیر چشمگیری بر توانایی تفکر انتقادی دانش آموزان و پیشرفت یادگیری واژگان آنان در گروه آزمایش و گواه نداشتند (تحلیل انووا یک سویه)؛ امابه کارگیری نقشه­های معنایی بر پیشرفت تفکر انتقادی دانش آموزان و یادگیری واژگان آنان در گروه آزمایش از نظر آماری تأثیرقابل توجهی داشت (آزمون تی- تست مستقل)؛درحالیکه در گروه گواه تغییر چشمگیری مشاهده نشد.پیشنهادهایی برای پژوهش­های آتی و همچنین کاربردها و محدودیت­های پژوهش در پایان ارائه شده است.



[1]. O’Brien


[2]. Honey

کلیدواژه‌ها


منابع
آری، د؛ جیکوبز، ل. چ و رضویه، اَ. (1990). روش تحقیق در تعلیم و تربیت، ترجمه وازگن سرکیسیان، مینو نیکو، ایما سعیدیان، (1380). تهران: سروش.
حجازی، ا و برجعلی لو، س. (1388). تفکر انتقادی، سبک‌های هویت و تعهد هویت در نوجوانان: ارائه یک مدل علّی. دو فصلنامه روانشناسی معاصر. 4(2): 3-15.
عاشوری، م؛ پورمحمدرضا، ت. م؛ جلیل آبکنار، س. س و عاشوری، ج. (1391). اثربخشی یادگیری و بازآموزی اسنادی بر حل مسأله ریاضی. روانشناسی تحولی: روان شناسان ایرانی. 8(31): 247-255.
عاشوری، ج؛ آزادمرد، ش؛ جلیل آبکنار، س. س و معینی­کیا، م. (1392). الگوی پیش‌بینی پیشرفت تحصیلی بر اساس راهبردهای شناختی و فراشناختی، جهت‌گیری هدف‌های پیشرفت و هوش معنوی در درس زیست‌شناسی. روانشناسی تحولی: روان شناسان ایرانی. 2(4): 118-136.
همایونی، ع؛ کدیور، د و عبداللهی، م. ح. (1385). رابطه سبک های یادگیری، سبک‌های شناختی و انتخاب رشته‌های تحصیلی در دانش آموزان پسر دبیرستانی. روانشناسی تحولی: روان شناسان ایرانی. 3(10): 137-144.
Abdelrahman, B., & Mohammed, O. N. E. (2013). The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on Efl Learners’ Awareness of Vocabulary Knowledge at Al Imam Mohammed Ibin Saud Islamic University. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 2(7), 722-731.
Abdollahzadeh, E., & Amiri Vardani, N. (2010). The effect of vocabulary instruction through semantic mapping among EFLlearners with different perceptual learning styles. Journal of English Language Studies, 1(2), 1-22.
Abu-Dabat, Z. I. (2013). The Achievement and Development of Critical Thinking Skills in the Arabic Language of Adolescent Pupils With reference to The Primary Stage throughout Jordan. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 3 No. 5, 155-162.
Al-Hebaishi, S. M. (2012). Investigating the relationships between learning styles, strategies and the academic performance of Saudi English majors. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 1(8), 510-520.
Allamnakhrah, A. (2013). Learning critical thinking in Saudi Arabia: Student perceptions of secondary pre-service teacher education programs. Journal of Education and learning, 2(1), 197.
Alotaibi, K. N. R. (2013). The effects of blended learning on developing critical thinking skills. Education Journal, 2(4), 176-185.
Ammons, J. H., & Friday-Stroud, S. S. (2009). Enhancing Performance in Critical Thinking.
Baghban, V., & Zohoorian, Z. (2012). The relationship between Iranian English language learners’ learning styles and strategies. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 771-777.
Bloom, B. S. (1956). A taxonomy for critical thinking abilities. Retrieved on April 26th, 2014, from: http://www.kyrere.k12.az.us/schools/brisas/sunda/litpuck/BloomCriticalT
Bloom, B. S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational researcher, 13(6), 4-16.
Bloom, B. S. (1987). A Response to Slavin's Mastery Learning Reconsidered. Review of Educational Research, 57(4), 507-8.
Burris, S., & Garton, B. L. (2006). An investigation of the critical thinking ability of secondary agriculture students. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research, 56(1), 18-29.
Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review.
Cohen, A. D. (2011). Second language learner strategies. Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning, 2(Part V), 681-698.
Cooper, S., & Patton, R. (1997). Writing logically, thinking critically.
Cysouw, M. (2010). Semantic maps as metrics on meaning. Linguistic Discovery, 8(1), 70-95.
Dewey, J. (2004). Democracy and education. Courier Corporation.
Facione, P. A. (2007). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2007, from: http://insightassessment.com/t.html
Fahim, M., & Ahmadi, H. (2012). Critical thinking, content schemata, and EFL Readrs’ comprehension and recall. Journal of Comparative Literature & Culture, 1(1), 23-28.
Farajollahi M., Najafi, H., Nosrati Hashi K. & Najafiyan S. (2013). Relationship between Learning Styles and Academic Achievement of University Students. Quarterly of Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 6(2): 83-88.
Farhadi, H., Jafarpur, A., & Birjandi, P. (2006). Testing Language Skills: From Theory to Practice. Tehran: SAMT.
Ghanizade, A. & Mirzayi, S. (2012). EFL Learners' Self-regulation, Critical Thinking and Language Achievement. International Journal of Linguistics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 451-468.
Haan, de Ferdinando (2007). Building a semantic map: Top-down vs. bottom-up approaches. Retrieved on September 17th, 2015, from: http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/conference/07-SemanticMaps/files.html
Honey, P. (2004). Critical thinking questionnaire. Retrieved on Oct 12th, 2004 from: http://www.peterhoney.com//
Howard, V. A. (1983). Critical Thinking and Education. Teachers College Record Volume 85 Number 1, p. 154-157.
Jokar, M. (2012). The relationship between perceptual learning style preferences and listening comprehension strategies of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Academic Research International, Vol. 2, No. 2, 739-745.
Kafipour, R., Yazdi, M., & Shokrpour, N. (2011). Learning styles and levels of vocabulary learning among Iranian EFL learners. European Journal of Social Sciences, 25(3), 305-315.
Kalelioglu, F., & Gülbahar, Y. (2014). The Effect of Instructional Techniques on Critical Thinking and Critical Thinking Dispositions in Online Discussion. Educational Technology & Society, 17(1), 248-258.
Kanzaki, K., Ma, Q., Murata, M., & Isahara, H. (2001). Classification of adjectival and non-adjectival nouns based on their semantic behavior by using a self-organizing semantic map. Retrieved on September 17th, 2009, from:http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/conference/07SemanticMaps/manuscripts
Keefe, J. W. (1989). Learning Style Profile Handbook: II. Accommodating Perceptual, Study, and Instructional Preferences.
Khabiri, M. & Zarrinsadaf, M. T. (2013). Asynchronous web-based discussion forums in a blended learning environment: boosting learners’ critical thinking. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, Vol. 3 10. No. 9, 3-24.
Khodae Balestane, M., Hashemnezhad, H., & Javidi, S. (2012). The relationship between language learning strategies and thinking styles of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 2(4).
King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (2004). Reflective judgment: Theory and research on the development of epistemic assumptions through adulthood. Educational psychologist, 39(1), 5-18.
Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of management learning & education, 4(2), 193-212.
Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Kondakçi, E. U. & Aydin, Y. C. (2013). Predicting Critical Thinking Skills of University Students through Metacognitive Self-Regulation Skills and Chemistry Self-Efficacy. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13(1), 666-670.
KÜÇÜK, M. (2012). The relationship between online learners’ learning styles and learning strategies. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (H. U. Journal of Education), Vol.42, 287-298.
Kuhn, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking. Educational researcher, 28(2), 16-46.
Lee, C. K. (2010). An overview of language learning strategies. Arecls, 7, 132-152.
Lee, S. H. (2003). ESL learners’ vocabulary use in writing and the effects of explicit vocabulary instruction. System, 31(4), 537-561.
Lim, S. E. (2010). Developing Reflective and Thinking Skills by Means of Semantic Mapping Strategies in Kindergarten Teacher Education. Early Child Development and Care Volume 173, Issue 1, pp. 55-72.
Magogwe, J. M., & Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. System, 35(3), 338-352.
Mah, B. Y. (2011). Semantic mapping: A visual and structured pre-writing strategy in the process of essay writing. ESTEEM Academic Journal UiTM Pulau Pinang, 7, 81-92.
Majid, A., & Levinson, S. C. (2003). Quantifying semantic regularity across languages. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from: http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/conference/07SemanticMaps/manuscripts
Marin, L. M., & Halpern, D. F. (2011). Pedagogy for developing critical thinking in adolescents: Explicit instruction produces greatest gains. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6(1), 1-13.
Myers, B. E. & Dyer, J. E. (2006). The influence of student learning style on critical thinking skill. Journal of Agricultural Education, Vol. 47, No. 1, 43-52.
Naeini, J. (2005). The effects of collaborative learning on critical thinking of Iranian EFL learners. Unpublished Master Thesis, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Central branch, Iran.
Nilforoushan, S. (2012). The effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on EFL learners' awareness of the affective dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge. English Language Teaching, 5(10), 164.
Nirmala, T., & Shakuntala, B. S. (2011). Concept mapping—An effective tool to promote critical thinking skills among nurses. Nitte University Journal of Health Science, 1(4), 21-26.
Nosratinia, M., & Sarabchian, E. (2013). Predicting EFL learners’ Emotional Intelligence and critical thinking ability through Big-Five Personality Traits: A study on psychological characteristics of EFL learners. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4(9), 500-515.
Novak, J. D., & Canas, A. J. (2008). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. Retrieved on September 17th, 2009, from: http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.pdf.
O’Brien, L. (1989) Learning Styles: Make the Student Aware. National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, 73: 85-89.
O'Brien, T. P. (1991). Relationships among selected characteristics of college students and cognitive style preferences. College Student Journal.
Olejarczuk, E. (2014). Investigating the relationship between learning styles, learning strategies and students’ performance in a blended learning course: A research proposal. Konińskie Studia Językowe (KSJ), Vol. 2(3), 257-271.
Oxford, R. & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables Affecting Choice of Language Learning Strategies by University Students. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 73, No. 3, 291-300.
Oxford, R. L. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System, 17(2), 235-247.
Oxford, R. L. (Ed.). (2003). Language learning styles and strategies. Mouton de Gruyter.
Padidar, H. A., Tayebi, G., & Shakarami, A. (2015). The Relationship between Learning Styles and Vocabulary Learning and Retention. Spectrum, 4(1).
Paul, R. W., & Binker, A. J. A. (1990). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928.
Pedder, R. A. (2006). Thinking Well: Getting beyond the mundane. Retrieved June 6, 2008, from: http://www.ywamdtscentre.com/docs/Resources/
Reid, J. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21(1), 87-109.
Roberts, T. G., & Dyer, J. E. (2005). The relationship of self-efficacy, motivation, and critical thinking disposition to achievement and attitudes when an illustrated web lecture is used in an online learning environment. Journal of Agricultural Education, 46(2), 12-23.
Rudd, R. D., Baker, M., & Hoover, T. (1998). Student and faculty learning styles within academic units in the University of Florida's College of Agriculture. NACTA Journal, 42(3), 18-24.
Salehi, M. & Bagheri, M. S. (2011). The Relationship between Reid’s Learning Styles and Oxford’s Language Learning Strategies in Adult EFL Learners of Iran Language Institute. Iranian EFL Journal, Volume 7, 2011 Index.
Semantic Mapping Strategies. Retrieved on September 17th, 2015, from:
Seliger, H. W. & Shohami, E. G. (1989). Second Language Reasearch Methods. L.A: Oxford University Press.
Skehan, P. (1991). Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in second language acquisition, 13(02), 275-298.
Stein, B. S., Haynes, A. F., & Unterstein, J. (2003, December). Assessing critical thinking skills. In SACS/COC Annual Meeting, Nashville TN.
Sternberg, R. (1985). Critical Thinking: Its Nature, Measurement, and improvement. In F. R. Link (ed.) Essays on the Intellect. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Suliman, W. A. (2006). Critical thinking and learning styles of students in conventional and accelerated programs. Int Nurs Rev., 53(1), pp. 73-79.
Torff, B. (2006). Expert Teachers’ Beliefs about Use of Critical-Thinking Activities with High and Low-Advantage Learners. Teacher Education Quarterly, v33 n2 p37-52.
Tulbure, C. (2012). Investigating the relationships between teaching strategies and learning styles in higher education. Acta Didactica Napocensia, Vol. 5, No.1, 65-74.
Vacca, R. T.,& Vacca, J. L. (2013). Content Area Reading: Literacy and Learning across the Curriculum (11th Ed.). TN: Pearson.
Warnick, B., & Inch, E. S. (1994). Critical thinking and communication: The use of reason in argument. Macmillan College.
Webb, S. (2005). Receptive and productive vocabulary learning: The effects of reading and writing on word knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(01), 33-52.
Wei, H. E. (2015). A Tentative study of Learning Styles and Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Non-English Majors in Minority Academy. International Conference on Education, Management and Computing Technology (ICEMCT). Pp. 1325-1327.
Willingham, D. T. (2008). Critical thinking: Why is it so hard to teach?.Arts Education Policy Review, 109(4), 21-32.
Wu, J. (2011). Effects of learning styles on self-directed foreign language vocabulary learning. Reading.
Yang, Y. T. C., & Wu, W. C. I. (2012). Digital storytelling for enhancing student academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation: A year-long experimental study. Computers & Education, 59(2), 339-352.