کاهش قلدری جسمانی و بهبود شایستگی اجتماعی در دانش‌آموزان: از سنجش کنشی رفتار تا طراحی مداخله رفتاری

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشاسی، دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشگاه تبریز

3 استاد گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز

4 استاد روان شناسی تربیتی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی کنش رفتار قلدری جسمانی، طراحی و ارزیابی اثربخشی مداخله چندجانبه کنش-محور و مقایسه مداخلات پیشایندمحور، پیامدمحور و آموزش رفتار جایگزین بر رفتار قلدری و شایستگی اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان قلدر بود. آزمودنی‌های پژوهش شامل 60 دانش‌آموز قلدر، 15 دانش‌آموز طرفدار قلدر و 9 معلم پایه پنجم ابتدائی بودند که با استفاده از روش‌ نمونه‌گیری هدفمند، نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده و روش غربالگری انتخاب شدند. ابزار اندازه‌گیری پژوهش شامل مقیاس نقش مشارکت‌کنندگان، فرم نام‌گذاری همسالان، فرم نام‌گذاری معلمان، مقیاس قلدری ایلی‌نویز، مقیاس خود-گزارشی شایستگی اجتماعی، مقیاس سنجش انگیزش و پرسشنامه مشکلات رفتاری بود. یک طرح شبه آزمایشی با پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون، همراه با گروه کنترل در پژوهش استفاده شد. یافته پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که کنش یا علت رفتار قلدری 45 درصد از آزمودنی‌های قلدر، دریافت تقویت حسی است. نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس چندمتغیری نشان داد که مداخله چندجانبه کنش-محور بر کاهش رفتار قلدری و بهبود شایستگی اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان به­طور معنی‌داری اثربخش است. اما مداخلات پیشایندمحور، پیامدمحور و مداخله مربوط به رفتار جایگزین به‌تنهایی بر کاهش رفتار قلدری و بهبودی شایستگی اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان قلدر اثر معنی‌داری ندارند؛ بنابراین، نتایج بیانگر اهمیت و نقش مداخله چندجانبه کنش-محور با در نظر داشتن تغییر هم‌زمان پیشایندها، پیامدها و رفتار هدف بر کاهش قلدری و بهبود شایستگی اجتماعی دانش‌آموزان قلدر است. محدودیت‌ها و کاربردهای پژوهش برای روانشناسان تربیتی بحث شده است.

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