بررسی استفاده از رویکرد کلاس معکوس در آموزش عالی: یک مرور نظام‌مند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران/ محقق مهمان دانشگاه استرالیای جنوبی و دانشگاه ایالتی کالیفرنیا، آمریکا

2 استادیار تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مجازی، تهران، ایران

3 دکتری تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان، کردستان، ایران.

چکیده

اصلاحات در آموزش عالی به دلیل ظهور فناوری‌های جدید نیازمند تغییر در آموزش سنتی است. رویکرد کلاس معکوس می‌تواند راه‌حلی برای چنین تغییرات آموزشی جهت ایجاد محیط یادگیری فردی دانشجومحور باشد. این رویکرد که یک نوع از یادگیری تلفیقی است، آموزش سنتی و برخط را با استفاده از هر دو محیط داخل و خارج از کلاس حضوری به‌گونه‌ای مؤثر تلفیق کرده است. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی شیوه استفاده از رویکرد کلاس معکوس در آموزش عالی و مزایا و معایب به‌کارگیری و میزان تأثیر آن بر جنبه‌های مختلف آموزشی از جمله یادگیری است. این تحقیق یافته‌هایی را که از مرور نظام‌مند تحقیقات درباره استفاده از رویکرد کلاس معکوس در آموزش عالی به‌دست‌آمده است را ارائه می‌دهد. جستجوی نظام‌مند با توجه به کلمات کلیدی به 548 تحقیق رسید که درنهایت 31 تحقیق منطبق با معیارها جهت تحلیل عمیق تعیین گردید. تحلیل تحقیق‌های انتخاب‌شده نشان داد که رویکرد کلاس معکوس تأثیر مثبتی بر یادگیری، کاهش بار شناختی، درگیر شدن، دقت، انگیزه، نگرش و رضایت از دوره و خودکارآمدی در آموزش عالی دارد و از مهم‌ترین چالش‌های کلاس معکوس نیز به عدم آشنایی و سازگاری مناسب دانشجویان با روش معکوس سازی، افزایش بارکاری مدرسان و مشکلات یادگیری از ویدئو بودند. با توجه به تحلیل یافته‌های تحقیق‌های انتخاب‌شده نتیجه گرفته می‌شود که نظام آموزش عالی کشور می‌تواند به‌طور مؤثر از این روش استفاده کند.

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